1973 — Le Duc Tho, born Phan Dinh Khai (1911–1990) – Vietnamese general, revolutionist, diplomat and politician, and Henry Alfred Kissinger (born 1923), security advisor, and then Secretary of State in administrations of two American Presidents: Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford – both honoured for their efforts aimed at ending the Vietnam War. Tho declined the prize.

Kissinger is an American writer, political scientist, diplomat and businessman of German-Jewish background. He played a crucial role in Washington’s foreign policy, succeeded in establishing official relations between the United States and China which shifted the global balance of power in Cold War years and made possible the policy of détente.

In 2002, he was appointed chairman of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States to investigate the September 11 attacks; in 2006, Pope Benedict XVI asked him to become his advisor on foreign affairs.

Kissinger is an influential expert on foreign policy and China.

He wrote numerous highly regarded books, including his monumental work “Diplomacy”, “On China” and “Crisis. The Anatomy of Two Major Foreign Policy Crises”.

Le Duc Tho – co-founder of the Indochinese Communist Party and one of the leaders of the Vietnamese independence movement Viet Minh fighting for the release of Vietnam from the French control. Twice imprisoned by French colonial authorities. In the years 1955–86, member of the Politburo of the Vietnam Workers’ Party. One of the leaders of Viet Cong (Communist guerilla fighters) which clashed with South Vietnam at the end of 1950s.

Lec Duc Tho refused to accept the prize together with Kissinger whom he termed the “destroyer of Vietnam”.

The Paris Peace Accords marking the end of Vietnam War were signed on 27 January 1973 by ministers of foreign affairs of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, the Saigon Government and the United States. However, soon after the agreement was signed, the armed conflict in Vietnam broke out again.

Since 1975, Le Duc Tho oversaw the offensive of North Vietnamese troops which led to the fall of the South Vietnamese government following which the communists seized power throughout the country.

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